AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 579 To ^ balance the considerable quantities of coke coming into Austria from Germany, there are large amounts of brown coal (lignite) carried from Bohemia into Germany. It goes northward by water transports on the Elbe to Magdeburg, and even to Hamburg, meeting there the competition of English and Westphalian fuel. SEC. XXVIIb.óBohemia (see No, 1 on Map]: This province is well supplied with fuel, although there is no good coking coal. It raises nearly four million tons of soft coal each year and eighteen million tons of lignite, most of the latter coming from the vicinity of Teplitz. Bohemia also has a supply of iron ore well suited for the basic Bessemer. It carries from 0.6 to 0.8 per 'cent, of sulphur and is roasted and leached with water to dissolve' the sulphates, after which treatment it averages about as follows: Per cent. ^e ............................. 42.00 to 48.00 P............................. 1.2 Mn ............................ 0.1 S.............................. 0.3 The coke is brought from Silesia and Westphalia. The principal works are those of the Prager Eisen Industrie Gesellschaft at Kkdno and Teplitz, and the Bohmische Montan Gesellschaft at Ivonigshof. Kladno has four modern blast furnaces, three basic converters of 13 tons capacity, a basic open-hearth plant and mills for rolling rails, structural shapes, wire, etc. The blooming mill is strong and ingots of three tons are rolled into rails and beams in one heat. Teplitz has three basic converters, two heavy plate mills and a beam mill. It receives pig-iron from Konigshof, where there are four modern blast furnaces and one basic converter. Until recently there was considerable business done in small ingots only four inches square, which were rolled directly into small shapes, but this practice is now carried on only at Konigshof and in small amount. It is found more economical to roll billets from large ingots than, to cast small pieces, this being the trend of experience throughout Europe. It is at Kladno that Mr. Bertrand developed the Bertrand Thiel open-hearth process discussed in Chapter XII. The ore used in the open-hearth furnaces is partly Gellivare (Swedish), and some of this is also used in the blast furnace to reduce the content of phosphorus in the pig-iron to about 1.5 per cent.